Probiotics are known to have a role in enhancing digestive health. In this paper, evidence for the efficacy of Bacillus clausii, a spore forming probiotic (viz clinical studies) in the treatment of diarrhoea, prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and in the prevention of side effects associated with Helicobacter pylori is presented. Mechanism of action suggested is through inhibition of pathogens and immunomodulatory effects. Bacillus clausii is the probiotic of choice in the treatment of diarrhoea as it has the added advantage of being a spore forming probiotic. It is therefore stable at room temperature and resistant to low pH ensuring that it reaches the small intestines where it can colonize and exert its beneffcial effects
Probiotics are live microbes, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health beneﬁt to the host . Bacillus species which are spore forming bacteria have been used as probiotics for the last ve decades. e advantage of spore forming probiotics over non-spore formers such as Lactobacillus spp. is that they are heat stable and can be stored at room temperature without any loss of viability. Spore forming bacteria are also resistant to acidic conditions of the stomach (low pH) and hence can survive the transit to reach the intestine [2,3]. Experimental data suggest that both Bacillus clausii (B. clausii) spores and cells can adhere to the bowel wall and colonize the mucosa . As B. clausii is extremely stable to acidic conditions, the entire dose of ingested bacteria reach the small intestine intact. ree principal reviews have covered the ﬁeld of Bacillus spp. as probiotics [5-7]. ffe most extensively studies Bacillus probiotics are B. subtilis, B. clausii, B. cereus, B. coagulans and B. licheniformis [8
Clinical studies with Bacillus clausiiB. clausii is a probiotic widely used in Italy since the1960s for viral diarrhoea in children and for antibiotic related side-effects . We had earlier conducted a study to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of our B. clausii strain UBBC-07 in patients suffering from acute diarrhoea .Diarrhoea is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality among adults and children globally . In industrialised countries, the incidence of acute diarrhoea was observed to be an average of 0.5 to 2 episodes per year per person. The incidence is higher in developing and underdeveloped countries than in industrialised countries . While viruses are the major causative agent in children, both bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in adults . Other causes for acute diarrhoea include irritable bowel syndrome, intake of some types of drugs, and ileal bile salt malabsorption. e treatment of acute diarrhoea mainly involves the prevention of dehydration, shortening the length of the illness, and reducing the period that a person is infectious .
Treatment with oral rehydration solutions (ORS) have signiffcantly reduced the incidence of mortality and morbidity caused by diarrhoea, however, ORS neither shortens the duration of diarrhoea nor improves stool consistency. Other treatment options include antibiotics, gut motility suppressing agents (e.g., loperamide, codeine), and probiotics .Normal gut microbiota plays an important role in the protection of the host against gastrointestinal tract diseases [15,16]. During acute diarrhoea, the normal gastrointestinal microbiota is found to undergo radical changes that facilitate the overgrowth of unwanted microorganisms, including pathogenic strains. Several authors have reported that the administration of probiotics can restore the gut microbiota and also control the severity of diarrhoea [17-19].In our study, we evaluated the anti-diarrhoeal activity of B. clausii strain UBBC 07 in patients suering from acute diarrhoea. A total of 27 patients (average age of 35.44 ± 8.08 years) with acute diarrhoea